What is the adult Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN)?
More information about the adult CAN is available in this section of the website – use the menu on the left to navigate the adult CAN pages.
The CAN is a family of questionnaires that can be used to assess the wide range of problems which can be experienced by people who have mental health problems. CAN has been translated into 30 languages and modified versions have been created for various groups of people.
Download the CAN 2nd edition
Four versions of the adult CAN have been developed.
Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule (CANSAS) is a one-page assessment that records the need rating for each of the 22 CAN domains.
Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule – Patient (CANSAS-P) is a two-page assessment designed for self-completion that records the need rating for each of the 22 CAN domains.
Camberwell Assessment of Need – Research (CAN-R) is a 22-page assessment for research use, that records information about need, support and satisfaction for each of the 22 CAN domains.
Camberwell Assessment of Need – Clinical (CAN-C) is a 22-page assessment for clinical use, that records information about need and support, and a clinical action plan for each of the 22 CAN domains.
CAN 2nd edition book
The first edition of the adult CAN was developed by a team of collaborators at King’s College London in 1994:
Phelan M, Slade M, Thornicroft G, Dunn G, Holloway F, Wykes T, Strathdee G, Loftus L, McCrone P & Hayward P (1995) The Camberwell Assessment of Need: the validity and reliability of an instrument to assess the needs of people with severe mental illness, British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 589-95.
It was published in book form in 1999:
Slade M, Loftus L, Phelan M, Thornicroft G Wykes T (1999) The Camberwell Assessment of Need, London: Gaskell.
The second edition was published in 2020:
Why has the CAN become so widely used?
The CAN is now the most widely used needs assessment measure internationally, and it is in used in many different countries. The CAN is successful because:
- It is standardised – the reliability and validity have been tested, so it produces meaningful data
- It is comprehensive – it assesses a full range of health and social needs
- It is multi-perspective – it separately assesses the perspective of staff, service users and family members
- It is widely available – it has been translated into 30 languages
- It is clinically useful – identifying areas of agreement and disagreement supports negotiation of a service user’s care plan
- It measures an important outcome – the service user’s perspective on their unmet needs (‘patient-rated unmet need’) has emerged as an important variable, and reducing their unmet need causes improvements in therapeutic alliance and quality of life
Variants of the CAN
Camberwell Assesment of Need for Adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (CANDID)
Xenitidis K, Slade M, Bouras N, Thornicroft G (2003) CANDID: Camberwell Assessment of Need for adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities, London: Gaskell.
NB CANDID 2nd edition being published in 2020.
Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE)
Orrell M, Hancock G (2004) The Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE), London: Gaskell.
Camberwell Assessment of Need – Forensic (CANFOR)
Thomas S, Harty M, Parrott J, McCrone P, Slade M, Thornicroft G (2003) The Forensic CAN: Camberwell Assessment of Need Forensic Version (CANFOR), London: Gaskell.
NB CANFOR 2nd edition being published in 2020.
Camberwell Assessment of Need for mothers and pregnant women with mental health problems (CAN-M)
Howard L, Hunt K, Slade M, O’Keane V, Seneviratne T, Thornicroft G (eds) (2008) The Camberwell Assessment of Need for Pregnant Women and Mothers with Severe Mental Illness, London: Gaskell.
Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale (HESPER)
Semrau M, van Ommeren M, Blagescu M, Griekspoor A, Howard L, Jordans M, Lempp H, Marini A, Pedersen J, Pilotte I, Slade M, Thornicroft G (2012) The development and psychometric properties of the Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs (HESPER) Scale, American Journal of Public Health, 102, e55-e63.